Prevalence of Peripheral Artery Disease and Associated Risk Factors in a Brazilian Rural Population: The Baependi Heart Study
Rafael de Oliveira Alvim
Fernando Augusto Lavezzo Dias
Camila Maciel de Oliveira
Andréa Roseli Vançan Russo Horimoto
Anderson Zampier Ulbrich
José Eduardo Krieger
Alexandre da Costa Pereira
Background: The identification of peripheral artery disease (PAD) can help prevent further progression of the disease and additional complications, considering that this condition is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of PAD in the Baependi Heart Study and investigate associated risk factors in different age groups.
Methods: A total of 1,627 individuals (of both genders and aged 18 - 102 years) residing in the municipality of Baependi (Minas Gerais, Brazil) were selected for this study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated by standard techniques. Physical activity level was determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF). The screening of PAD was performed by determination of the anklebrachial index (ABI). The level of statistical significance was set at 5%.
Results: In the overall sample, the prevalence of PAD was 1.05%, and reached 5.2% after the age of 70 years. The frequency and intensity of smoking were higher in individuals with PAD. A prior history of myocardial infarction and a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle were also associated with PAD. In addition, PAD was more frequent in blacks than whites. In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, smoking, and physical inactivity remained independently associated with PAD.
Conclusion: The prevalence of PAD was low and increased clearly with age in our sample from a Brazilian rural population. Furthermore, the main risk factors for PAD in the investigated sample were smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, and age. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2018;31(4)405-413)
Keywords: Peripheral Arterial Disease / prevalence; Risk Factors; Rural Population; Tobacco Use Disorder; Ankle-Brachial Index.