Decompensated Heart Failure with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction: Epidemiology and In-Hospital Mortality Risk Factors
Gabriela Paiva Cavalcanti
Glory Eithne Sarinho Gomes
Carolina de Araújo Medeiros
José Henrique Martins Pimentel
André Rabelo Lafayette
Maria Celita Almeida
Paulo Sérgio Rodrigues Oliveira
Silvia Marinho Martins
Background: Recently, a new HF entity, with LVEF between 40-49%, was presented to comprehend and seek better therapy for HF with preserved LVEF (HFpEF) and borderline, in the means that HF with reduced LVEF (HFrEF) already has well-defined therapy in the literature. Objective: To compare the clinical-therapeutic profile of patients with HF with mid-range LVEF (HFmrEF) with HFpEF and HFrEF and to verify predictors of hospital mortality.
Method: Historical cohort of patients admitted with decompensated HF at a supplementary hospital in Recife/PE between April/2007 - August/2017, stratified by LVEF (< 40%/40 - 49/≥ 50%), based on the guideline of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016. The groups were compared and Logistic Regression was used to identify predictors of independent risk for in-hospital death.
Results: A sample of 493 patients, most with HFrEF (43%), HFpEF (30%) and HFmrEF (26%). Average age of 73 (± 14) years, 59% men. Hospital mortality 14%, readmission within 30 days 19%. In therapeutics, it presented statistical significance among the 3 groups, spironolactone, in HFrEF patients. Hospital death and readmission within 30 days did not make difference. In the HFmrEF group, factors independently associated with death were: valve disease (OR: 4.17, CI: 1.01-9.13), altered urea at admission (OR: 6.18, CI: 1.78-11.45) and beta-blocker hospitalization (OR: 0.29, CI: 0.08-0.97). In HFrEF, predictors were: prior renal disease (OR: 2.84, CI: 1.19-6.79), betablocker at admission (OR: 0.29, CI: 0.12-0.72) and ACEI/ ARB (OR: 0.21, CI: 0.09-0.49). In HFpEF, only valve disease (OR: 4.61, CI: 1.33-15.96) and kidney disease (OR: 5.18, CI: 1.68-11.98) were relevant.
Conclusion: In general, HFmrEF presented intermediate characteristics between HFrEF and HFpEF. Independent predictors of mortality may support risk stratification and management of this group. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020;33(1):45-54)
Keywords: Heart Failure/physiopatology; Stroke Volume/physiology; Prognosis; Hospital Mortality; Epidemiology.