From Echocardiographic Evaluation to Biomarkers Measurement: The Role of Myocardial Dysfunction in Mortality Associated with Sepsis
Márcio da Silva Campista
Wolney de Andrade Martins
Mariana de Andrade Guedes
Antonio José Lagoeiro Jorge
Sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide. Myocardial dysfunction is one of the most clinically relevant manifestations of sepsis and results from a complex interaction among genetic, molecular, metabolic, and structural changes. Despite the prominence given to the occurrence of systolic dysfunction during sepsis, the association between diastolic dysfunction and mortality is controversial, while diastolic dysfunction and right ventricular dysfunction are identified as independent predictors of mortality in the most recent studies. Elevation of biomarkers during sepsis may result from several mechanisms, and although the role of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal portion of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) as independent predictors of mortality is well defined, the same cannot be said about cardiac troponins due to conflicting results among currently available studies. The objective of the present review is to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial dysfunction induced by sepsis in adults and the role of echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers as tools for prognostic evaluation in this clinical setting.
Keywords: Sepsis; Mortality; Biomarkers; Cardiac dysfunction