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Volume 114, Nº 1, January 2020


DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.20180194


Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality in Infective Endocarditis

Ana Marques

Inês Cruz

Daniel Caldeira

Sofia Alegria

Ana Catarina Gomes

Ana Luísa Broa

Isabel João

Hélder Pereira


Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with severe complications and high mortality. The assessment of mortality rates and predictors for fatal events is important to identify modifiable factors related to the pattern of treatment, in order to improve outcomes.

Objectives: We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with IE and to determine predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Methods: Retrospective single-center study including patients with IE admitted during a 10-year period (2006-2015). Data on comorbidities, clinical presentation, microbiology and clinical outcomes during hospitalization were evaluated. Risk factors of in-hospital death were analyzed. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: A total of 134 cases were included (73% males, mean age of 61 ± 16 years-old). Half of them had previous valvular heart disease. Healthcare-associated IE and negative blood-cultures occurred in 22% and prosthetic IE in 25%. The aortic valve was the one most often affected by infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated microorganism. Forty-four (32.8%) patients underwent cardiac surgery. The in-hospital mortality rate was 31.3% (42 patients). The identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality were Staphylococcus aureus etiology (OR 6.47; 95% CI: 1.07-39.01; p = 0.042), negative blood-cultures (OR 9.14; 95% CI: 1.42-58.77; p = 0.02), evidence of valve obstruction in echocardiography (OR 8.57; 95% CI: 1.11-66.25; p = 0.039), clinical evolution with heart failure (OR 4.98; 95%CI: 1.31-18.92; p = 0.018) or septic shock (OR 20.26; 95% CI: 4.04-101.74; p < 0.001). Cardiac surgery was a protective factor of mortality (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.03-0.65; p = 0.012).

Conclusion: The risk factors for in-hospital mortality were clinical (heart failure, septic shock), evidence of valve obstruction in echocardiography, Staphylococcus aureus etiology or negative blood cultures. Invasive treatment by surgery significantly decreased the mortality risk. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(1):1-8)

Keywords: Endocarditis, Bacterial/mortality; Hospitalization; Comorbidity; Shock Septic; Heart Failure; Risk Factors; Echocardiography/methods; Cardiac Surgery.