Pathophysiology and Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: State of the Art and Prospects for the Future
Sara Lopes Fernandes
Rita Ribeiro Carvalho
Luís Graça Santos
Fernando Montenegro Sá
Sofia Lázaro Mendes
João Araujo Morais
Figure 1 – Pathophysiology of HFpEF - possible mechanisms involved. AF: atrial fibrillation; CAD: coronary artery disease; CKD: chronic kidney disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HFpEF: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HT: arterial hypertension; NO-cGMP-PKG: nitric oxide, reduced cyclic guanosine monophosphate and protein kinase G; PH: pulmonary hypertension; RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; RV: right ventricle.
Keywords: Heart Failure/physiopathology; Heart Failure/diagnosis; Heart Failure/drug therapy; Systolic Volume; Heart Failure/ complications.